This term is usually used in cooking pasta. It means to cook until tender but still slightly firm.
A powdered starch similar to cornstarch, which is used for thickening soups and sauces. Arrowroot produces a glossy sheen, which makes it good for thickening fruit-based pie fillings.
A French term for the method of preparing fish the instant after it is killed, especially for trout; the fish is plunged into a boiling court bouillon, which turns the skin a metallic blue colour.
A French term for a dish topped with a layer of either cheese or bread crumbs mixed with butter. It is then boiled or baked until brown.
French term for meats served in their natural juices.
A French term meaning “with pepper”, typically describing meats either prepared by coating in coarse ground peppercorns before cooking or accompanied by a peppercorn sauce.
A bain-marie is a container filled with hot water that is used during the cooking process, as with a crème brulee.
Cooking in an oven or oven-type appliance. When meat is cooked uncovered it is generally referred to as roasting.
A baking technique by which a pie or tart shell is cooked prior to filling it. This is done to keep the shell bottom from soaking through and producing a soggy crust. The shell is first perforated with a fork to prevent puffing, covered with aluminium foil or parchment paper, and then weighted.
To wrap a lean cut of meat in a fat, like bacon, to prevent drying out when roasted. The barding fat bastes the meat while cooking and is then removed a few minutes before it is done to allow browning.
Brushing food with liquid such as melted fat, meat drippings, fruit juice, sauce, marinade or water during cooking to moisten. Basting adds flavour and prevents surfaces of food from drying out.
White cream sauce thickened with a roux liason (a combination of flour and a fat). Béchamel sauce is the base for such sauces as Mornay sauce, and is the foundation for many savoury soufflés. In Italy, Béchamel sauce is known as Balsamella.
To incorporate a thickening agent into a hot liquid.
A cooking technique where meat or fish is coated with a seasoning mixture of paprika, cayenne pepper, white pepper, garlic powder, onion powder, dried thyme and dried oregano. A cast-iron skillet is heated until oil added to the pan reaches its smoke point. This technique gives the food a crust and sears in the juices.
Quickly immersing vegetables or fruit into boiling water for 1 to 2 minutes then into cold water to stop the cooking process. Blanching is sometimes necessary before freezing fruits or vegetables for better quality products when they are thawed. Blanching is also helpful in removing skins from tomatoes or peaches.
To remove flesh from the bone or joint of meats, poultry, etc. A special boning knife is used and a degree of skill is required so as not to damage the end product.
A French phrase describing food prepared uncomplicated and simple or rustic.
The French word for a broth, it is a liquid made from scraps of meat, poultry or fish with chopped vegetables simmered in water. The liquid that is strained after cooking is the bouillon.
A bundle of fresh herbs usually consisting of parsley, thyme and bay leaf that is bound by twine and placed into a soup, stock or sauce to aid flavour. The bundle is removed just before service.
Browning meat or poultry in a small amount of liquid or fat, then cooking, tightly covered, over low heat for a long time. Braising meat develops flavours in the browning process. A good cooking method for less tender cuts of meat.
Coating a food with bread crumbs, cracker crumbs or other food prior to cooking. Typically, the food is moistened with beaten egg or other liquid first. Good for sautéing or frying.
Cooking meat (or other food) directly under (as in a gas or electric oven) or over the heat source (as on a grill). Moisture is held in the food by the high cooking temperatures which quickly “seal in” flavour. This cooking method is ideal for tender cuts of meat.
A culinary term used to describe the partial crushing of an ingredient so as to release its full flavour, most notably garlic.
French for “burnt”, as in, crème brulee.
A French term used to describe a specific cut (very small dice) or mixture of vegetables, usually braised in butter.
To cut food, usually meat, fish or poultry, evenly down the centre but not completely through. The two halves are then opened flat and grilled, sautéed or stuffed and rolled to be roasted.
Italian for “hunter”, this style of dish is accompanied by onions, mushrooms, tomatoes and herbs.
Used in reference to people of French Acadian descent who were removed from their homeland of Nova Scotia by the British in the late 1700’s. Cajun cooking has long been wrongly thought of as synonymous with Creole cooking of the same region. Cajun and Creole differ in the fact that, Cajun cuisine relies more on roux and a large amount of animal fat where as Creole cooking utilises more butter and cream.
Canapé is a type of hors d’oeuvre or small, single-bite food, that is traditionally made with a base of a small piece of bread with some sort of topping.
Heating sugar or foods containing sugar over moderate heat with constant stirring to develop a brown colour. This browning process contributes to the flavour of foods.
The thin, tubular membrane of the intestine used to hold processed meats and forcemeats, as in sausages and salami.
A variety of portable cooking containers used to either heat or cook food with a heat source directly underneath it. They usually contain a large pan with water, like a double boiler, to keep the food from burning and are most frequently used in a buffet setting.
A French term for any variety of edible mushrooms or the particular dish they accompany.
Products based on, but not limited to, pork and its offal. These include sausages, salami, paté and similar forcemeats. Also used in reference to the practitioner of this ancient culinary art.
A French term describing a dish that is first cooked and then chilled for service.
The five most basic sauces that every other sauce is based upon. Antonin Carệme invented the methodology in the early 1900’s by which hundreds of sauces are categorised under five Chef Sauces. There are infinite possibilities for variations, since the sauces are all based on a few basic formulas.
The five Chef Sauces are:
A French culinary term for a food that is wrapped (in puff pastry, for example) or coated (a thick sauce poured over the top).
A culinary term referring to the backbone of an animal and its addition or removal from cuts of meat.
A conical sieve with a very fine mesh used for straining tiny particles from sauces and stocks.
To agitate cream to the point of separating the fat from the liquid.
Our range of traditional style demi-glace mixes offer exceptional quality and value and are the perfect base for stews, gravies, braises and all of your banqueting needs.
Our range of Classic Sauces offer exceptional taste, value, quality and convenience.
Covering a food with, or dipping it into, an ingredient such as flour or sauce. To cover with a thin layer of flour, sugar, nuts, crumbs, seeds or spices.
Coeliac disease is a common digestive condition where a person has an adverse reaction to gluten. It is becoming an increasingly recognised dietary requirement and should be considered when building menus.
A chilled sauce or condiment of fresh or dried fruit in syrup.
Softened butter mixed with a variety of ingredients then rolled and chilled. During service, disks of the butter are cut and usually placed of top of the dish allowing it to melt over the finished product.
A French term for chopping or pounding an ingredient such as tomatoes, fresh herbs, meats and ice used to chill an item for serving.
A culinary term used to describe a substance in which the water content has been reduced to a certain thickness.
An accompaniment to prepared foods that heighten the flavour, aid digestion, preserve the food, or stimulate the appetite.
A cooked meat or poultry that is prepared and stored in its own fat. Duck and goose are common to this ancient technique of cooking and storage.
A mixture of fruits, nuts and sugar cooked until thickened and spread on biscuits, toast points, etc.
A clarified, highly flavourful broth served hot or cold. The broth is clarified using a “raft” of egg whites during preparation. As the whites cook they attract the various sediments like a magnet.
A culinary term used generally to describe a thick puree, sauce or soup.
A dish made from tiny granules of durum wheat.
Mixing one or more foods (usually fat and sugar) with a spoon or an electric mixer until soft, smooth and creamy.
More refined than Cajun, Creole cookery relies more on butter and cream, it also relies more on the use of tomatoes and is not as spicy as its Cajun counterpart.
To pinch together two pastry edges to prevent the filling from escaping.
Cooking foods such as vegetables just until tender but not soft or limp. This term is often used in stir-fry recipes.
A croquette is a small patty, ball or cylinder of puréed salmon, potatoes or some other item that is usually breaded and deep-fried.
Raw fruits and vegetables served as an appetiser with various cold condiments.
Cutting foods such as vegetables or meat into pieces with 6 equal sides.
A French term used to describe a specific style of cooking or a certain country’s food in general.
The separation of the semi solid and liquid portions of milk caused by coagulation.
To treat foods in order to preserve them. Smoking, salting and pickling are some of the many ways to cure foods.
Mixing solid fat throughout dry ingredients using two knives or a pastry blender until flour-coated fat particles are the desired size. Typically used when making pastry.
About half of ⅛ teaspoon of a spice or seasoning.
Refers to a French recipe for potatoes in which the potatoes are sliced, layered in a baking dish and then baked au gratin with garlic, butter and cream.
To transfer a liquid from one vessel to another. This is generally done to separate the wine from any sediment and to allow it to “breathe” which enhances the flavour.
Adding liquid to a hot pan after sautéing or roasting to release the meat’s essence left in the pan. This liquid usually consists of wine, brandy, juice or broth.
A French term meaning “half-glaze”. A rich brown sauce and that is used as a base for many other sauces, it begins with a basic brown sauce preparation which is combined with veal espagnole, stock and wine. This is slowly reduced by half to a thickness that coats the back of a spoon.
A term describing food that is combined with various other spicy seasonings such as Tabasco sauce or red peppers and thereby creating a “devilled” dish.
Cutting food into very small cubes.
A cooking term meaning to separate meats at the joint. Separating the drumstick from the thigh of poultry would be an example of this.
To mix a liquid with a dry ingredient thoroughly enough that no grains of the dry ingredient are evident.
A process of separating the components of a liquid by heating to the point of evaporation, then cooling until it condenses into a purified form.
To remove the entrails from poultry or fish; also to clarify a mixture.
Lightly covering or coating food with flour or other fine substances such as bread crumbs or cornmeal. Often beef cubes are “dredged” in flour prior to browning for beef stew.
To prepare fish, poultry, and game for cooking, by methods such as plucking, skinning or scaling and then eviscerating. Also to add dressing to a salad.
The fat and juices obtained when cooking meat, poultry, seafood, or fish.
A light sprinkle of flour or sugar over a food. This process results in a lighter covering than when coating a food before frying. Powdered sugar is commonly used to dust desserts.
A French term meaning to wrap an article of food which is to be poached or simmered in stock. The food item is usually wrapped in cheesecloth to hold it together. It also refers to the filling of a mould to be cooked, such as paté.
A food additive used to preserve the texture of emulsions. The most commonly used emulsifier used in cooking is egg yolks for their lecithin content.
A mixture that occurs from the binding together of two liquids that normally do not combine easily, such as vinegar and oil.
Indicates a food that has been wrapped in pastry dough and then baked in the oven. Salmon en croute is a popular recipe.
French word meaning a thinly sliced white meat, usually veal, it can also be in reference to a fillet from a large fish or lobster.
Traditionally made from beef or veal stock, aromatics, herbs, and tomato.
Obtained by distillation or infusion, they are strong aromatic liquids used either to enhance the flavour of certain preparations or to flavour certain foods that have little flavour of their own.
A French term referring to a dish whose ingredients are slow cooked, also a clear brown stock used to dilute sauces, ragouts and braised dishes.
A biochemical change brought on by the action of yeast or bacteria on certain foods, especially carbohydrates.
A boneless cut of meat or fish, also, the action of removing flesh from the bone to obtain the fillet.
Refers to a blend of herbs traditionally used in French cooking. While there is no exact recipe for fines-herbes, it usually includes parsley, tarragon, chervil and chives. Marjoram is occasionally included in fines-herbes as well.
A cut of beef taken from the abdominal muscles.
Pressing or crimping an attractive edge into the edges of a piecrust before baking, using a fork or fingers. The fluted edge should be pressed under the rim of the pan in several places to prevent shrinkage. When a top crust is used, the top and bottom crusts are pressed together to seal in the filling.
Combining one ingredient, usually a light or delicate ingredient, with another heavier ingredient by gently turning the mixture with a spoon or spatula to minimise loss of air. Two motions are used: cutting vertically through the mixture and sliding it across the bottom of the bowl and up the other side. Typically used to mix fruit into a batter such as muffin or pancake batter.
A mixture of raw or cooked seasoned ingredients used to stuff a variety of foods, especially sausages. Also the basis for patés, meat pies, terrines, quenelles, etc.
A flat Italian-style omelette that’s usually prepared in a cast-iron skillet.
Cooking food in hot fat over moderate to high heat. Pan-frying (frying) and sautéing are similar, although sautéing is generally considered to be quicker and uses less fat. Deep-frying requires that the food be submerged in the hot fat.
A concentrated liquid obtained by reducing a stock, particularly fish or mushroom, used to fortify or enhance the flavour of a sauce, soup or stock.
The Italian word for “mushrooms”.
A style of culinary art that incorporates ingredients and/or methods from several different ethnicities or regions. Originally combining western and Asian influences, it now includes all ethnic cuisine. Also considered modern American cooking.
These authentic stock reductions provide great taste and flavour, and the intensity of flavour delivery perfect to finish any sauce. Use them with confidence as you would any reduced stock or glaze.
The French term for “glazed” or “frozen”. Primarily items that are coated with a syrup, cooked to the “crack stage”, to give the hard, shiny coating.
A thick, syrupy substance obtained by reducing an unthickened stock. Used as an essence and added to sauces to fortify their flavour.
The technique of applying a glossy surface to food. This can be done by basting the food with a sauce while it is cooking or by putting a glaze on it and placing briefly under the broiler. To glaze cold foods, apply a coat of aspic, gelatin or dissolved arrowroot.
Proteins found in wheat and other cereal grains that hold carbon dioxide molecules produced by yeasts and expand during fermentation. Gluten develops when certain flours are mixed and kneaded for a period of time.
Refers to a type of Italian dumpling made from potatoes and flour.
Cutting foods into smaller pieces using a grater or food processor. This technique is used on firm foods such as carrots or cheese.
A recipe that is prepared in the au gratin style, which means that it’s topped with seasoned breadcrumbs and cheese and then baked.
Roasted meat juices, thickened with flour or starch, and seasoned.
Preparing a pan by greasing and then lightly dusting with flour to prevent food from sticking. This is a common technique used when baking cakes; some recipes will refer to the pan as a “prepared” pan.
Reducing food to small particles by cutting or crushing the food mechanically in a grinder, blender, or food processor. Foods can be ground to varying degrees – fine, medium and coarse. Spices can be ground in a mortar and pestle.
Halal is an Arabic word which is translated most commonly as “lawful, permitted or acceptable.” In the context of food the term “halal foods” is often used. This means, in context, the foods that are lawful or permitted for the observant to consume.
Each halal stock is made in a dedicated, licensed production unit by staff trained in appropriate handling of halal ingredients and products, and managed according to HACCP principals to ensure segregation from non-halal materials throughout the production process.
A specific blend of herbs indigenous to the southern regions of France, it is used to season a variety of dishes. This common blend usually contains lavender, marjoram, rosemary, basil, and sage.
An emulsion of fat and egg yolks, either hot or cold (mayonnaise based sauces fall into this category).
Small, one or two-bite items that are served before a dinner, usually accompanied by cocktails or in place of dinner at a cocktail party where a full dinner is not being served.
Also referred to as the husk or shell, it is the covering of certain fruits or seeds. Also used in reference for preparing food for consumption by removing the outer covering.
The technique of making shallow incisions into meats or fish with a sharp knife for the purpose of tendering or to insert herbs/spices into the flesh.
The technique of steeping an aromatic substance into a heated liquid until the liquid has absorbed the added ingredient’s flavour. Oil, milk and tea leaves are common ingredients used in the infusion process.
Cutting meat, vegetables or fruit into long, thin strips. May be used as a garnish or in a stir-fry.
Pan-drippings from roasted meat, reduced by two thirds, which is generally enhanced by deglazing the pan with stock and then simmering the liquid with mirepoix before straining and serving.
Working dough with the heel of a hand or with the kneading attachment of a mixer in order to develop the structure of bread.
Kosher foods are those that conform to the regulations of kashrut (Jewish dietary law).
Any of numerous plant species that produce seeds encased in pods, the individual seeds are also known as pulses.
A thickening agent added to soups, sauces or other mixtures. Common liasons are roux, cornstarch and egg yolks.
The meat section of an animal that comes from the area on both sides of the backbone, extending from the shoulder to the leg, or from the rib to the leg as in beef and lamb.
To soak foods in a liquid, such as wine, alcohol, vinegar or simple syrup, so they absorb the flavour of the liquid and break down tissues to soften the food.
A portion of meat from the breast of duck, presented with the skin and underlying layer of fat still attached.
A seasoned liquid in which foods are soaked (marinated). The marinade is usually a combination of an oil and an acid, such as vinegar or fruit juice. Marinades are used to add flavour to the food or to tenderise. If a marinade is to be used later for basting or as a sauce, make a larger batch and reserve a portion before adding the meat. Never re-use marinade that has been in contact with uncooked meat.
Soaking a food in a marinade. Foods should be refrigerated during marinating. Discard any remaining marinade that has been in contact with uncooked meat, poultry or seafood.
The soft tissue found in the centre of certain bones of an animal, commonly prepared by baking or poaching, also used to fortify soups and stews.
Small, round cuts of beef, chicken, veal or other meats taken from the tip or end cut, or formed in a mould.
Finely chopping or cutting food into ⅛ inch pieces or smaller. This term refers to foods cut up more finely than simply being chopped.
A culinary preparation consisting of diced carrots, onion, and celery. A mirepoix is used to enhance the flavour of soups, stocks, meat preparations and as a garnish for presentations.
A French term referring, on a whole, to all of the operations carried out in a restaurant prior to serving the meal. It refers to all the required ingredients and utensils for the preparation of a menu item, preparing them for immediate use, and having the proper amounts for service at hand.
An aromatic court bouillon used for cooking shellfish. The liquid is usually reserved and served as the accompanying sauce.
A French term meaning to cover food with a light, thin, layer of sauce.
A French term for egg whites that have been beaten until they form stiff peaks. They are used in many dessert and pastry preparations.
A name given to various dishes typical of the cuisine found in the region around the city of Nice, France. The most common ingredients used are garlic, tomatoes, anchovies, olives and French green beans.
Our No.1 gravies contain meat stock and fat/dripping to give that great gravy taste. We have created our gravies to be served with pride.
Fruits, seeds, and plants with a fat content of 60 to 40 percent and rich in proteins. Their main uses are as a source for oils, or roasted and salted for consuming. They include almonds, pistachios, peanuts, olives, walnuts, etc. and the seeds of sunflower, safflower, poppy, etc.
The French word for “bread. Also used to describe a moulded loaf of forcemeat such as beef, poultry, fish or vegetable pain, which can be served hot, cold, or at room temperature.
A sauce made by deglazing the sauté pan used to cook meat, poultry or fish, etc. with wine, stock or both and adding various ingredients including herbs, shallots, capers, etc. The liquid is then reduced to sauce consistency.
Cooking meats and fish, uncovered, over high heat on a hot surface (usually in a frying pan), pouring off fat as it forms.
Partially cooking foods in water or other liquid. Cooking is usually completed by another method. Also called blanching.
To remove the skin or outer protective layer from foods like fruits and vegetables. This is done with a paring or tourne knife or a vegetable peeler.
A process in which bacteria is killed by heating milk or other liquids to moderately high temperatures for a short period of time.
To soak dried foods in a liquid solution until the food softens and swells slightly from absorption.
Our versatile jus has the meaty taste, viscous feel and the mirror-like sheen of a traditional jus – but can be made up in a fraction of the time. Makes just as much as you need.
Pushing down a risen yeast dough with the fist. This step is necessary to allow formation of smaller, more uniform air pockets.
A smooth paste made by pressing food through a fine sieve or food mill; also a thick sauce made from puréed vegetables or fruit.
Grinding food until it is completely smooth by using a blender, food processor or forcing the food through a sieve or food mill.
A dumpling made with forcemeat of pork, beef, or fish bound together with fat and eggs. The term is also used to describe the oval, three sided shape commonly produced.
An Italian red sauce with meat typically served with pasta.
Adding water to dried or concentrated foods, such as non-fat dry milk or orange juice concentrate, to restore them to their original consistency.
Boiling a liquid to reduce the volume. This technique is often used with stocks, wine, and sauce mixtures to intensify flavours and thicken.
Restoring water lost during drying by soaking or by cooking the dehydrated food in liquid, as when cooking dried beans.
A small deer common to German and east European forests. The flesh of young roebuck is delicate and dark red with no need for marinating.
A round, thick slice of veal cut across the leg commonly used in roasting or braising, this cut is used to make Osso Bucco.
A French term for any of various preparations which are stuffed and then rolled.
A cooked mixture of equal amounts of flour and butter, or other fat, used to thicken many sauces and stews. The cooking time varies depending on the type of roux required. The three types of roux are blonde, brown, and black.
A rub is a dry blend of ground herbs and spices that is rubbed onto the surface of meat, poultry or fish to impart an “instant” flavour to the food. To make a wet rub or “paste”, simply combine the dry blend with a touch of oil, water, honey or juice.
A French term describing the cleansing of thin skinned vegetables through friction by wrapping them in cloth with coarse salt and shaking.
A cooking technique which refers to preparing a food quickly in oil and/or butter over direct heat.
Heating liquid to just under the boiling point. Also refers to placing fruit and vegetables in boiling water for 1 minute to aid in removing the skin.
Layering sliced food, often potatoes, with sauce or other liquid, and baking in a casserole. The scalloped food is often topped with bread or cracker crumbs before baking.
Not quite up to full measure or slightly less than the required amount.
Making shallow cuts, notches or lines on the surface of meat or food to increase tenderness, prevent the fat from curling, or make food look attractive.
Browning the surface of meat quickly in a skillet or grill over high heat or under the broiler to help seal in juices.
Products under the Signature Range are all ‘ready to use’, providing you with the ultimate combination of quality and convenience, include s Beef Jus, Red Wine Jus, Hollandaise Sauce and Chicken Stock Reduction.
Cooking food gently over low heat in liquid that is just below the boiling point (about 90°C). Bubbles will form slowly and just begin to break the surface.
A long, thin, pointed rod of wood or metal upon which food is placed to hold it during cooking or serving. Wood skewers should be soaked in water for at least 15 minutes before use. Also, to position food on a “skewer.”
To expose foods to smoke from a wood fire, using select woods, for a prolonged period of time. Traditionally used for preservation purposes, smoking is used as a means of adding natural flavours to food.
Cooking food on a rack in steam over boiling water in a closed container. The food should not touch the water.
Extracting flavour or colour from a food, by placing the food (such as tea, coffee, herbs or spices) in a heated liquid that is below boiling point in order to extract flavour or colour, as in tea.
Simmering less tender cuts of meat and vegetables in liquid for an extended time.
Frying thinly and uniformly sliced food quickly in a small amount of hot oil, stirring constantly. Denser foods, such as broccoli and carrots, may need to be sliced thinner and/or cooked before other ingredients are added.
Stock is a flavoured water preparation. It forms the basis of many dishes, particularly soups and sauces. Stock is prepared by simmering particular vegetables or meats along with herbs in water, to extract flavour.
Stocks (often mistakenly called bouillons) are one of the cornerstones of a good kitchen. They are a key ingredient in your recipe, the heart and soul, delivering depth and balance of flavour in the final dish.
White fatty casing that surrounds the kidneys and the loins in beef, sheep, and other animals. Suet has a higher melting point than butter and when it does melt it leaves small holes in the dough, giving it a loose soft texture. Many British recipes call for it to lend richness to pastries, puddings, stuffings, etc.
To cook aromatic vegetables, or other food, over low heat in a small amount of fat, usually in a covered pan or pot.
A Japanese technique of dipping in batter and deep frying foods, particularly fish and vegetables.
To make a thin paste by mixing flour, cornstarch or arrowroot with an equal amount of cold water and then stirring the paste into a hot liquid and cooking it, stirring constantly, until the liquid has thickened.
A technique commonly used with dried seeds such as sesame, cumin and fennel to release maximum aroma and flavour. Low to medium heat is applied to seeds in a dry skillet or baking pan. Should be done just before adding to the recipe.
To thread twine through the body of poultry for the purpose of holding the legs, and sometimes the wings, in place during cooking.
A French culinary term meaning to freeze ice creams and sorbets until solid.
Any variety of deep, lidded dishes used in the service of hot liquids (soups, stews, etc.)
To decoratively cut fruits or vegetables in a zig-zag pattern around the circumference.
A French term meaning to stir or whisk a mixture until it has cooled.
Referring to dishes prepared absolutely vegetarian, without the use or contact of any animal product whatsoever.
Chicken stock, white veal stock, or fish fumet is the base liquid with a liason added. Velouté is often made even richer by adding egg yolks or cream.
A term describing the flesh of deer.
A French term for the assembly and preparation of confections or pastries.
French for “wine”.
A combination of vinegar, oil and/or seasonings, herbs, etc.
The outermost covering of citrus fruits containing aromatic oils.